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Installing SonarQube on ECS with Cluster.dev

Installing SonarQube on ECS with Cluster.dev
15 Feb 2024
Articles
Author: Sidath Munasinghe, author, technical lead at 99x
Views: 937

In this article, we will walk through the steps of deploying SonarQube on AWS ECS using Cluster.dev as an infrastructure installer. You’ll see how employing this tool can help quickly complete this otherwise arduous and time-consuming process. 

SonarQube, developed by SonarSource, is an open-source platform dedicated to the ongoing assessment of code quality. The tool detects bugs and code smells across a variety of programming languages, employing automated reviews powered by static code analysis.

However, if you opt for a self-hosted SonarQube, it will require a robust and scalable infrastructure setup that is challenging to provision. In this case I’d recommend using AWS RDS for a resilient database and AWS ECS for a scalable computing layer. To initiate our infrastructure, we will use the Cluster.dev infrastructure installer. 

The diagram below shows an infrastructure setup that we are going to build with Cluster.dev in this blogpost.

Cluster.dev SonarQube deployment high-level architecture diagram

The high-level architecture diagram

Before proceeding into technical implementation, let’s briefly review the basics of Cluster.dev.

Cluster.dev main points 

Explained below are the fundamentals of a Cluster.dev project.  

  • Unit: a unit represents an individual resource that is the structural element of our infrastructure setup (for example, a load balancer). Units can be implemented by various technologies, such as Terraform modules, Helm charts, Kubernetes manifests, Terraform code, Bash scripts, etc. Configuring a unit involves providing specific inputs, yielding distinct outputs for use, and reference by other units if needed.
  • Stack template: a stack template is a set of units that will initiate and provision a certain infrastructure pattern, which in our case is the SonarQube deployment in ECS. With each unit representing a distinct tool, we can employ a variety of technologies to create complex infrastructure patterns within a stack template.  
  • Stack: a stack is a configuration file that defines the template’s setup and a set of variables that will be applied to the template. 
  • Project: a project can be defined as a high-level abstraction to store and reconcile different stacks. It also operates as a comprehensive variable repository for all stacks, allowing for passing global variables across different stacks within an infrastructure setup.  
  • Backend: a backend defines a location to store the Cluster.dev’s state, either locally or remotely. 

The diagram below reveals how these building blocks are set up for SonarQube ECS deployment.

Cluster.dev ECS deployment component layoutThe layout of the Cluster.dev components for ECS deployment

Technical implementation

Before implementing any infrastructure pattern, it’s crucial to identify the necessary resources as units and determine the appropriate technology for each. In this setup, we’ll use Terraform modules to create the following AWS resources:

  • ECS Cluster
  • ECS Task Definition
  • ECS Service
  • Load Balancer
  • Postgres RDS Database
  • Security groups for Database, Load balancer & ECS service
  • Necessary IAM roles

Now let’s define all the necessary resources in the template.yaml file. The following YAML file encompasses all the AWS resources required for this setup. Notice how we’ve interconnected various Terraform modules to provision the necessary infrastructure. Additionally, we’ve employed several variables to ensure the repeatability of the infrastructure pattern for various use cases. The syntax for utilizing a variable is {{ .variables.<variable_name> }}, and we can reference the outputs of one unit in another using the {{ remoteState "this.<unit_name>.<attribute>" }} syntax.

Lastly, the Printer unit exposes the DNS name of the load balancer, enabling access to the deployed SonarQube application. 

_p: &provider_aws
  - aws:
      region: {{ .variables.region }}

name: cdev-sonarqube
kind: StackTemplate
units:
  - name: WebSecurityGroup
    type: tfmodule
    providers: *provider_aws
    source: terraform-aws-modules/security-group/aws//modules/http-80
    inputs:
      name: 'WebSecurityGroup'
      vpc_id: {{ .variables.vpc_id }}
      ingress_cidr_blocks: ["0.0.0.0/0"]

  - name: DBSecurityGroup
    type: tfmodule
    providers: *provider_aws
    source: terraform-aws-modules/security-group/aws
    inputs:
      name: 'DBSecurityGroup'
      vpc_id: {{ .variables.vpc_id }}
      ingress_with_source_security_group_id:
        - rule: "postgresql-tcp"
          source_security_group_id: {{ remoteState "this.ECSSVCSecurityGroup.security_group_id" }}

  - name: ECSSVCSecurityGroup
    type: tfmodule
    providers: *provider_aws
    source: terraform-aws-modules/security-group/aws
    inputs:
      name: 'ECSSVCSecurityGroup'
      vpc_id: {{ .variables.vpc_id }}
      ingress_with_cidr_blocks:
        - from_port: 9000
          to_port: 9000
          protocol: "tcp"
          cidr_blocks: "0.0.0.0/0"
      egress_with_cidr_blocks:
        - from_port: 0
          to_port: 0
          protocol: "-1"
          cidr_blocks: "0.0.0.0/0"

  - name: Database
    type: tfmodule
    providers: *provider_aws
    source: terraform-aws-modules/rds/aws
    inputs:
      engine: 'postgres'
      engine_version: '14'
      family: 'postgres14' # DB parameter group
      major_engine_version: '14' # DB option group
      instance_class: 'db.t4g.large'
      identifier: 'sonar-database'
      db_name: 'sonarqube'
      username: 'sonar_user'
      password: 'password'
      publicly_accessible: true
      allocated_storage: 5
      manage_master_user_password: false
      vpc_security_group_ids: [{{ remoteState "this.DBSecurityGroup.security_group_id" }}]
      subnet_ids: [{{ .variables.subnet_1 }}, {{ .variables.subnet_2 }}]

  - name: ECSCluster
    type: tfmodule
    providers: *provider_aws
    source: terraform-aws-modules/ecs/aws
    inputs:
      cluster_name: 'sonar-cluster'

  - name: ECSTaskDefinition
    type: tfmodule
    providers: *provider_aws
    source: github.com/mongodb/terraform-aws-ecs-task-definition
    inputs:
      image: 'sonarqube:lts-community'
      family: 'sonar'
      name: 'sonar'
      portMappings:
        - containerPort: 9000
          hostPort: 9000
          protocol: 'tcp'
          appProtocol: 'http'
      command:
        - '-Dsonar.search.javaAdditionalOpts=-Dnode.store.allow_mmap=false'
      environment:
        - name: SONAR_JDBC_URL
          value: jdbc:postgresql://{{ remoteState "this.Database.db_instance_endpoint" }}/postgres
        - name: SONAR_JDBC_USERNAME
          value: sonar_user
        - name: SONAR_JDBC_PASSWORD
          value: password
      requires_compatibilities:
        - 'FARGATE'
      cpu: 1024
      memory: 3072
      network_mode: awsvpc

  - name: LoadBalancer
    type: tfmodule
    providers: *provider_aws
    source: terraform-aws-modules/alb/aws
    inputs:
      name: 'sonarqube'
      vpc_id: {{ .variables.vpc_id }}
      subnets: [{{ .variables.subnet_1 }}, {{ .variables.subnet_2 }}]
      enable_deletion_protection: false
      create_security_group: false
      security_groups: [{{ remoteState "this.WebSecurityGroup.security_group_id" }}]
      target_groups:
        ecsTarget:
          name_prefix: 'SQ-'
          protocol: 'HTTP'
          port: 80
          target_type: 'ip'
          create_attachment: false
      listeners:
        ecs-foward:
          port: 80
          protocol: 'HTTP'
          forward:
            target_group_key: 'ecsTarget'

  - name: ECSService
    type: tfmodule
    providers: *provider_aws
    source: terraform-aws-modules/ecs/aws//modules/service
    inputs:
      name: 'sonarqube'
      cluster_arn: {{ remoteState "this.ECSCluster.cluster_arn" }}
      cpu: 1024
      memory: 4096
      create_task_definition: false
      task_definition_arn: {{ remoteState "this.ECSTaskDefinition.arn" }}
      create_security_group: false
      create_task_exec_iam_role: true
      assign_public_ip: true
      subnet_ids: [{{ .variables.subnet_1 }}, {{ .variables.subnet_2 }}]
      security_group_ids: [{{ remoteState "this.ECSSVCSecurityGroup.security_group_id" }}]
      load_balancer:
        service:
          target_group_arn: {{ remoteState "this.LoadBalancer.target_groups.ecsTarget.arn" }}
          container_name: sonar
          container_port: 9000

  - name: outputs
    type: printer
    depends_on: this.LoadBalancer
    outputs:
      sonar_url: http://{{ remoteState "this.LoadBalancer.dns_name" }}

With that, the complex part is over!

Let’s define the stack.yamlfile, which includes variables to configure the stack template. In this file, we’ve defined the configurations below as variables, so that we can easily adjust and reuse the existing AWS networking infrastructure.

  • region: AWS region
  • vpc_id: ID of VPC we need to deploy
  • subnet_1: ID of subnet 1
  • subnet_2: ID of subnet 2

If necessary, we can define more variables to make the stack template more flexible.

name: cdev-sonarqube
template: ./template/
kind: Stack
backend: aws-backend
variables:
  region: {{ .project.variables.region }}
  vpc_id: {{ .project.variables.vpc_id }}
  subnet_1: {{ .project.variables.subnet_1 }}
  subnet_2: {{ .project.variables.subnet_2 }}

We’ll utilize an S3 bucket to store the backend state of Cluster.dev. This can be configured in a backend.yaml file.

name: aws-backend
kind: Backend
provider: s3
spec:
  bucket: {{ .project.variables.state_bucket_name }}
  region: {{ .project.variables.region }}

Finally, we can define the project.yaml file to use this stack. For this infrastructure setup, we will use only a single stack. We can also define the global project variables within this file.    

name: cdev-sonarqube
kind: Project
backend: aws-backend
variables:
  organization: <org-name>
  region: <aws-region>
  state_bucket_name: <state-bucket-name>
  vpc_id: <vpc-id>
  subnet_1: <subnet1-id>
  subnet_2: <subnet2-id>

You can find full implementation details in this GitHub repository

Deploying the infrastructure 

Now we can deploy the stack with the Cluster.dev command cdev apply. Before executing the command make sure you have the Cluster.dev CLI installed

Invoking the command brings forward the list of resourced to be created, as shown below:

Cluster.dev SonarQube deployment resources

After the deployment is complete, the printer unit outputs the URL to access the deployed SonarQube application:

Deployed SonarQube applicationDeployed SonarQube application

As you can see, our deployment has auto-scaling enabled to scale out and scale in according to the incoming traffic.

ECS autoscaling policyECS auto-scaling policy 

As shown in the diagram above, it scales out when the CPU and memory reach certain thresholds, up to a maximum of 10 tasks. These settings can be adjusted based on our specific requirements.

And there it is — the culmination of our efforts. With the templates prepared, you can configure them to fit the specific use case, enabling seamless and repeatable deployments. This streamlined approach ensures adaptability and efficiency, allowing for a quick and hassle-free setup whenever needed.

Conclusion

In this article, we’ve walked through the essential steps to deploy SonarQube on AWS ECS using Cluster.dev to cover its key aspects. By combining the capabilities of SonarQube with the simplicity of Cluster.dev, we’ve created a reliable and easily managed infrastructure for elevated code analysis and quality assurance practices.

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